Miró, Joan

Miró, Joan
b. 1893, Barcelona; d. 1983, Palma de Mallorca
   Miró claimed that he never intended to create symbols, yet his childlike images remind us of prehistoric shapes that reflect basic life forces such as growth, movement, attraction and repulsion. Early inspiration came from a farm near the hill town of Montroig. Miró was influenced by the use of colour in Fauve painting, and developed an interest in detail and the rhythmic patterns of traditional Catalan art. The Farm is like an inventory of typical rural objects, and the very enlarged feet of The Farmer's Wife emphasize his belief that energy rises from the earth before transfiguring reality.
   After 1920 Miró worked in Paris, where he met leading surrealists and responded to their appeal to the imagination. He began to combine phantas-magoria with his depiction of external reality. In The Ploughed Field we find giant ears and eyes growing on trees. Thereafter Miró developed an entire pictorial language, a kind of visual shorthand. In Catalan Landscape (The Hunter) we recognize remnants of a moustache, the partial flame of an exploded gun, but never the entire object. This dismemberment is repeated in Portrait of Madame K where he selects images to convey the presence of a woman: head, breasts, heart, pubic hair.
   The surrealists favoured exploring the subconscious and also chance. Spontaneity was successfully harnessed in Miro's "dream paintings", but as oil and tempera proved limiting for the ideas of surrealism, Miró declared that he wished to "assassinate painting". He turned to collage, using string, random objects and a variety of textured surfaces. His images were often based on the abstraction of items advertised in illustrated catalogues, yet in the finished artwork such as Painting, 1933, they achieve the status of symbols. But what are they symbols of? Once more we find our reference in the stars and circles of archetypal iconography.
   Miró's work darkened with the advent of the Spanish Civil War. He used pastels to accentuate violent distortions in his "peintures sauvages", wherein the sky is often red or black. The now famous poster Aidez l'Espagne, descibes an immense clenched fist symbolizing the heroism and strength needed to defeat fascism. During the difficult years of WWII, Miró returned to Spain from occupied France, and retreated into detail. Swarms of tiny emblems fill the gently coloured spaces of his "constellation paintings", and are given long poetic titles like, Woman Beside a Lake Whose Surface Has Been Made Iridescent by a Passing Swan. Miró achieved worldwide recognition by the late 1950s. He continued to experiment with ceramics and lithography from his studio in Calamayor, Mallorca. Much of his painting and sculpture can be seen at the Fondation Maeght in St Paul de Vence, France, and at the Fundació Miró on Monjuich in Barcelona.
   Further reading
   - Dupin, J. (1962) Miró, London: Collins (a sensitive account of Miro's development).
   - Lassaigne, J. (1963) Miró, Lausanne: Skira (a competent study).
   - Penrose, R. (1995) Miró, London: Thames & Hudson (a clear and insightful study of Miro's life and work).

Encyclopedia of contemporary Spanish culture. 2013.

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  • Miró, Joan — born April 20, 1893, Barcelona, Spain died Dec. 25, 1983, Palma de Mallorca Spanish (Catalan) artist. He attended a commercial school and worked as an office clerk until a mental breakdown persuaded his artisan father to permit him to study art.… …   Universalium

  • Miró, Joan — ► (1893 1983) Pintor español. En 1912 asistió a la escuela de arte que dirigía Francesc Galí. Un eco de la retórica allí aprendida es el efectista Payés (1914). Pero por la misma época practicó ya una radical simplificación expresiva en las obras …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Miró,Joan — Mi·ró (mē rōʹ), Joan. 1893 1983. Spanish artist whose abstract and surrealist paintings are characterized by bright colors and simple bold forms. * * * …   Universalium

  • Miro, Joan — (4/20/1893 Montroig 12/25/1983 Mallorca) (Spain)    Painter, sculptor, graphic artist, illustrator, and textile designer. Studied at the Escuela de Artes y Oficias de la Lonja under M. Urgell and J. Pasco, also at a school run by F. Gali. A major …   Dictionary of erotic artists: painters, sculptors, printmakers, graphic designers and illustrators

  • Joan Miró — Joan Miró, Barcelona, 1935. Fotoporträt von Carl van Vechten Joan Miró i Ferrà [ʒuˈan miˈɾ …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Joan Miró — Miró redirects here. For other uses, see Miro (disambiguation). This is a Catalan name. The first family name is Miró and the second is Ferrà. Joan Miró Joan Miró, photo by Carl Van Vechten, June 1935 …   Wikipedia

  • Joan Miró — en Barcelona, en 1935 Nombre de nacimiento Joan Miró i Ferrà …   Wikipedia Español

  • Joan Miro — Joan Miró in Barcelona (1935) Frau und Vogel (Barcelona 1982) …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Joan Miro — Joan Miró Joan Miró …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Miró — Joan Miró Joan Miró …   Wikipédia en Français

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